A machine that separates the grapes from the stems.


Red grapes are chilled and allowed to soak prior to fermentation to help extract color and flavor.


The thick layer of grape skins, stems, and seeds that forms at the top of the tank during fermentation.

Bladder Press

A tube shaped press with an inflating rubber bladder.

Basket Press

A basket shaped press with thin slits that allows juice to escape while keeping the skins, stems, and seeds within the basket.


The mixing of separates wines in order to change a finished wines flavor profile.

Angels’ Share

The wine that evaporates during the aging process.


Physically breaking the cap by hand or with a hydraulic tool.

Press Cut

The point during pressing when the winemaker determines that the juice is no longer quality enough to be considered free run.


The solid remains of grapes in the tank once the free run has been completely drained.


he mass of destemmed and unfermented grapes and juice.

Malolactic Fermentation

The secondary fermentation that converts tart malic acid into smoother lactic acid.


Dead or residual yeast from fermentation and excess grape seeds, stems, and skins.

Free Run

The juice that flows freely from the grapes prior to them being pressed.


The process of filtering out any last particles in the wine to make them bright and clear.


The process in winemaking of turning sugar to alcohol using yeast.


Mixing the lees and the wine to create a fuller taste.


The process of removing leaves, stems, sticks, unripe grapes, and other objects from the fruit.


The process of transferring the wine off of the lees.


The process of pumping the juice from the bottom of the tank over the top of the cap.


Materials other than grapes such as leaves, stems, and sticks that are removed during the sorting process.

Barreling Down

The process of taking wine from tank or press into barrel.


The process of letting wine mature in barrel to stabilize and gain flavor.


The trough below the filter that catches the free run wine. The wine is then pumped via the sump into barrel/tank.

Wild Fermentation

A fermentation that occurs naturally without the introduction cultured yeast.


Refilling the barrels periodically to replace the wine that has evaporated.


A measurement of sugar content. One degree Brix is 1 gram of sucrose in 100 grams of solution